Professional Development and Program Evaluation Toolbox

ISTE Standard 4: Professional Development and Program Evaluation

Performance Indicator B: Design, develop, and implement technology rich professional learning programs that model principles of adult learning and promote digital age best practices in teaching, learning, and assessment.

Triggering Question

What are the essentials of a technology rich professional development learning program?


As I reach my final blog post for my EDTC 6106 class on professional development and program evaluation I find myself reflecting on how eager I was when I first started my master’s program in digital education leadership.  At that time, I was so excited to start learning about what it meant to be an effective coach, to learn “tricks” and “tips” that would make me excel as a school leader.  I definitely did fill my “coaching toolbox” but I am now struck by the realization that what I’m really eager for is to gain experience as a coach, to learn through trials, reflections, successes, and failures.  I feel ready to take on the role as a coach and instructional leader in my district and am confident that I feel this way because of the foundation this program has laid for me.  So, for this final blog post I wanted to synthesize my learning relating to how to create a technology rich professional learning program to complete a more comprehensive bank of “musts” as an instructional leader.  My resolution, outlined below in my “12 “Do’s” and “Don’ts” for Creating a Technology Rich Professional Learning Program” was developed by studying some excellent resources, included in the “references” section, as well as through the discussions with and feedback from my professors and classmates in my master’s cohort. My professional development toolbox is filling up and I’m eager to try it out!

Future Inquiries: Shoutouts to Awesome Resources

I have come across a few awesome resource this semester that I wanted to reflect on but haven’t found a place to do so.  Since this post is a synthesis of my learning I choose to include some commentary on these resources below in hopes that I will revisit them in the future.

Five Models of Teacher-Centered Professional Development – I LOVE this resource and want to try out each of the models for PD, each are underutilized and could be excellent tips for collaborative learning.

53 Ways to Check for Understanding – this document offers some excellent ideas for formative assessments, a vital, and sadly often missing, component of professional development.

Future Ready Schools: Empowering Educators through Professional Learning toolkit – I’m so glad that my classmate Liz turned me onto this resource!  This will be the first place I look for valuable information on planning, implementing, and evaluating professional development.

Hate PD? Try Voluntary Piloting – this is a post from Cult of Pedagogy, my favorite educational blog, and discusses piloting as an alternative to traditional professional development–I’d love to explore piloting further!

How to Plan Outstanding Tech. PD for Your Teachers – this is another post from Cult of Pedagogy and is almost exactly what I would have liked my blog post to be, had it not already been done.  In this post, blogger Jennifer Gonzalez discusses several tips and strategies for making excellent professional development.

Questionnaire Design Tip Sheet – This resource, provided by Harvard University and suggested by one of my professors, has some great ideas for creating effective survey questions.  As feedback is so vital in creating powerful professional development, I would like to spend more time looking at question design in the future.

References

Burns, M. (2014, November 26). Five Models of Teacher-Centered Professional Development. Retrieved March 9, 2017, from http://www.globalpartnership.org/blog/five-models-teacher-centered-professional-development

Hertz, M. B. (2011, June 16). The Dos and Don’ts of Tech Integration PD. Retrieved March 9, 2017, from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/technology-integration-teacher-development-mary-beth-hertz

Piper, J. (n.d.). 5 Don’ts for Teacher Professional Development. Retrieved March 8, 2017, from http://www.teachhub.com/5-donts-teacher-professional-development

Vilson, J. (2012, November 07). Three Dos and Don’ts of Transformative Teacher Leadership. Retrieved March 9, 2017, from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/dos-and-donts-teacher-leadership-jose-vilson

Building Relationships Between Educators and Administrators on a Foundation of Trust

Overview

What does a successful marriage, a first-time skydiver, and a educator/administrator relationship have in common?  They all rely on a foundation of trust. A marriage between a couple who lack trust in one another will likely end in divorce.  A skydiver who lacks trust in their instructor or equipment may plunge to their death.  An educator who lacks trust in their administrator or an administrator who lacks trust in their educators may drastically limit the opportunities for growth for themselves as well as their students.  While this third scenario may not be as immediately consequential, the long term effects make for an environment with little respect, learning, and integrity.

My master’s cohort has spent the last several weeks looking in depth at ISTE standard #4 for coaches, outlined below.

ISTE Standard 4: Professional Development and Program Evaluation – Performance Indicator B

Design, develop, and implement technology rich professional learning programs that model principles of adult learning and promote digital age best practices in teaching, learning, and assessment.

After all I’ve studied on this standard, I felt a bit “burnt out” when I originally read this week’s triggering question:

“What role should administrators play in professional learning programs and how do we advocate for their involvement and adequate professional learning support for technology-based learning initiatives?”  

I immediately thought of the necessity to differentiate professional development, but I’d covered that in a previous reflection. I then thought of the value of teacher voice and formative assessment but I’d done that too.  Luckily, my professional learning circle helped steer me towards a realization—most of my research and reflection has been based on how to plan and deliver great professional development.  What I had neglected to look at was the groundwork administrators and educators must lay to create an environment for powerful professional learning opportunities.  This led me to look at the necessity of building trust between administrators and educators as I studied the question:

Before teachers and administrators can collaborate together on professional and technology-based learning they must establish a relationship of trust.  How can they build this trust and what might stand in their way?

Characteristics of Trust

In her Edutopia article “When Teachers and Administrators Collaborate” Anne O’Brien, deputy director of Learning First Alliance explains that “trust alone does not guarantee success, [but] schools with little or no trust have almost no chance of improving” (O’Brien, 2014). So how do we build trust?  To begin, we must understand what combined characteristics create trust…

How do Educators and Administrators Build Trust?

Future Questions

  • What elements, aside from trust, are necessary as part of building a framework for effective professional development?
  • Gordon, J. (n.d.). 11 Ways to Build Trust. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://www.jongordon.com/positive-tip-buiild-trust.html

Resources

Alrubail, R. (2015, March 19) Administrators, Empower Your Teachers. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from https://www.edutopia.org/discussion/administrators-empower-your-teachers 

Brewster, C., & Railsback, J. (2003, September). Building Trusting Relationships for School Improvement: Implications for Principals and Teachers. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://educationnorthwest.org/sites/default/files/trust.pdf

Gordon, J. (n.d.). 11 Ways to Build Trust. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://www.jongordon.com/positive-tip-buiild-trust.html

OBrien, A. (2014, November 20). When Teachers and Administrators Collaborate. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/when-teachers-and-administrators-collaborate-anne-obrien

Collaborative Learning Strategies for Professional Development

Overview

After many conversations with educators and administrators, collaborations with my digital education leadership master’s cohort, a few months of pouring over professional development research, and reflections on my own experiences I can confidently say that most educator professional development opportunities are lacking in one way or another.  A few repeated sentiments include: most PD is just not relevant to my classroom, or, I know it’s going to be a waste of my time, or, it’s just filled with a bunch of top-down jargon, how is it best for students?  This makes me sad.  Professional development should be an opportunity to observe, reflect on, and apply best practices in teaching. Educators should leave a PD session empowered, not deflated. So, how can we make professional development more inspiring and engaging?

To answer this, I began by taking a deeper look at a few of the common issues with professional development.  I also looked at ISTE coach standard four indicator “B” which states that coaches must, “Design, develop, and implement technology rich professional learning programs that model principles of adult learning and promote digital age best practices in teaching, learning, and assessment” (2016).  

After understanding some of the the issues and standards, I had a framework to begin unpacking my triggering question on this topic: What collaborative learning strategies help create effective professional development opportunities?

What’s the Problem?

Collaborative Learning Strategies for Professional Development

In exploring great teaching strategies I relied a bit on my own experiences and a lot on two excellent resources: The Big List of Class Discussion Strategies from the blog Cult of Pedagogy and PBS’s Teaching Strategies Resources menu. I sifted through these resources and choose ones that most closely addressed the issues outlined above.  I made an effort to limit the number of strategies that I shared to a few that I have tried personally, as a teacher or as a learner.  With that said, I highly recommend checking out these two sites and seeing what more they have to offer!

Resources

Bishop, D., Lumpe, A., Henrikson, R., & Crane, C. (2016). Transforming Professional Learning in Washington State: Project Evaluation Report. Retrieved February 9, 2017, from http://www.k12.wa.us/CurriculumInstruct/WA-TPL/pubdocs/2016-WA-TPL-Evaluation-Report.pdf

Gonzalez, J. (2015, October 15). The Big List of Class Discussion Strategies. Retrieved February 9, 2017, from https://www.cultofpedagogy.com/speaking-listening-techniques/

Moersch, C. (2011). Digital Age Best Practices: Teaching and Learning Refocused. Retrieved February 9, 2017, from http://digitalis.nwp.org/sites/default/files/files/94/Digital%20Age%20Best%20Practices.pdf

PBS Learning Media (n.d.). Teaching Strategies: Resources for Adult Educators. Retrieved February 9, 2017, from http://kcts9.pbslearningmedia.org/collection/ketae/

A Model for Professional Development Considering Adult Learning Principles

Image adapted from UCBHCA: Training of Facilitators Manual for the Functional Adult Literacy Training Manual

Overview

Throughout my studies on digital education leadership, and specifically what it means to be an effective instructional coach and to design great professional development, I have continually been reminded that many of the teaching and learning practices used with K-12 students are effective with adults learners as well.  In fact, this point has been the resolution to most of my inquiries over my graduate program studies.  So, over these last few weeks I have been both delighted and intrigued to get to look at what sets adult learners apart from adolescent learners.

What Makes Adult Learners Unique?

I touched on adult learning in my last blog post, but to recap, the most prolific commentary on adult learning, also known as andragogy, comes from the adult educator Malcolm Knowles.  Knowles narrowed his theory of andragogy down to six major principles (Knowles, 2015). He claims that adult learners…

  • Are motivated and self directed.

  • Bring life experience and knowledge.

  • Are goal oriented

  • Are relevancy oriented.

  • Are practical.

  • Like to be respected.

The Australian Catholic University does a great job of summarizing each of these principles, but I was left wondering how this differs from students.  To address this inquiry, I found another great resource, from the Nebraska Department of Labor’s professional development site.  Below, I include a screenshot of an interactive infographic that details what sets adult learners apart from children.

I found the first point especially interesting–that children base what is important in their learning on what they are told to study.  If a teacher says the material is important, students will often believe them.  Contrarily, adults want to know the value of what the are learning and specifically how it will be valuable to their teaching.  I highly recommend all interested parties check out this resource!   

Adult Learning Principles in Professional Development

In studying about adult learners I quickly realized that there are so many great resources already available it would be superfluous to make my own. Instead, I choose to search for a model for professional development that is designed with the adult learning principles in mind.  I didn’t have to go far, as my own school district is currently preparing for a Learning Improvement Day (LID) that takes these principles into consideration.  In fact, the following slides are from the recent facilitator training.

How does the LID consider adult learning principles?

  • Adult Learners are goal oriented: our LID revolves around the Lake 8, which are the eight instructional components of student learning.  Each professional development session is aligned with one of these standards. The infographic below details the Lake 8 standards.

  • Adult learners are relevancy oriented: the LID consists of several sessions and participants get to choose which ones to attend.  The sessions are grouped by grade level (elementary or secondary) and, while some are subject specific, many apply to various subjects.  

  • Adult learners are practical: the goal of the LID is to leave teachers with instructional tools or resources they could implement in their classrooms the next day.  The goal is to keep each session quick and provide time to work.  The LID site also includes links to presentation materials and suggestions for future PD for those who want to extend their learning.

What’s missing?

It is unfair and inaccurate to judge just how effectively my district’s LID day accounts for all of Knowles principles until during and after the session.  The follow three principles cannot be determined yet and should therefore be the priorities of the facilitators when designing and implementing their specific professional development session.

  • Adult learners are motivated and self directed.
  • Adult learners bring life experience and knowledge.
  • Like to be respected.

Future Inquires

  • My goal for this blog post was to be reflective rather than to judge or evaluate.  However, I am curious to know if and how my district intends to assess how effectively the learning from the LID is implemented into instruction.
  • I keep reading that effective professional development is ongoing.  How could the LID be extended?

References

ACU (Australian Catholic University). (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from http://www.acu.edu.au/staff/our_university/faculties/faculty_of_health_sciences/professional_practice_resources_for_supervisors/interprofessional_resource_library/Facilitating_Learning/knowles_principles

CAV: January 13, 2017. (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from https://sites.google.com/lkstevens.wednet.edu/learningstrategiespd

Functional Adult Literacy (FAL) – Training Manual: Unit Two: Facilitating Adult Learning: 2.1 Characteristics of Adult Learners and Qualities of a Good Instructor. (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from http://collections.infocollections.org/ukedu/en/d/Jh0414e/5.1.html

LSSD Professional Learning Portal. (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from http://lifeinthetechlab.com/LSSD/plp/
Professional Development: Key Differences. (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from http://nelearn.myelearning.org/mod/page/view.php?id=423

Differentiating Professional Development

Those in the profession of education are all too familiar with buzzwords, those bits of jargon that often come and go as topics of conversation and professional development.  While these words can often feel a bit exhausting, one that has seemed to stick, and for good reason, is “differentiation”.  Since I started studying the pedagogy of teaching, differentiation has been at the core of most of my learning .  Educators are tasked with understanding how to modify the content, process, and product of instruction to meet the needs of individual learners (Carlson).  If we understand that this is a fundamental component of effective teaching, it is safe to say that instruction should be differentiated for all learners, regardless of age level, experience, or background.  Therefore, effective professional development for teachers must be differentiated so that it is valuable, effective, and efficient for everyone.  

This is no easy task.  In a classroom, a teacher may have around 25-30 students that they see every day as they teach them one, or a few, subjects.  In this scenario, differentiating instruction is often an ongoing challenge.  Contrarily, opportunities for professional development are much less frequent and, depending on the school, there could be 50-100 (or more!) educators who all teach different subject areas and grade levels.  How can professional development be molded to meet the diverse needs of educators?

What’s Wrong With Professional Development As It Is?

Finding a comprehensive list of tips on differentiating professional development was a bit of a struggle, but it was easy to find a ton of commentary on what currently isn’t working in professional development opportunities.  One of the best resources, the Center for Public Education’s “Teaching the Teacher’s: Effective Professional Development in an Era of High Stakes Accountability” findings report, offered a clear idea of why most professional development is ineffective.  They looked at the types of professional development offered to teachers over the course of a year.  They found the following:

This information is concerning because, “most development happens in a workshop-style model which research shows has little to no impact on student learning or teacher practice” (Darling-Hammond et al., 2009).  Workshops, the report suggests, are ineffective because, in contrast, professional development programs that impacted student achievement were lengthy and intensive, but workshops are often only over the course of a day or two.  Workshops are not ongoing and there is rarely any follow-up.  Additionally, workshops assume that the issue teachers face is a knowledge gap and once they learn a few tips they will be much improved.  In reality, the struggle is in implementing instruction.  So, while a workshop may help educators gather resources, they must then have the opportunity to observe and practice good teaching in action (Gulamhussein, 2013).  This report goes on to offer some excellent tips for creating effective professional development.  While I highly suggest anyone in the education profession to check out this report, its focus is not directly on differentiation. In what follows, I use this reports tips for effective professional development, along with a few other resources, to provide an idea of how to differentiate professional development.

Differentiating Professional Development

Future Inquiries

  1. I found this topic really interesting, but as it’s one I’ve only just begun exploring, my resources were mostly introductory.  I would like to find more resources that get a bit deeper into differentiating professional development.
  2. Most of the information I found suggests that professional development be differentiated in the same ways we differentiate learning for K-12 students.  This makes sense, but are there other resources to consider when teachers are the learners?

Professional Development and Project Evaluation Mind Map

I created the following Coggle Mind Map based on my reading of Chapter 2: Evaluating and Assessing Professional Development from Sally Zepeda’s book Professional Development: What Works.  I will be using this learning throughout the quarter as I continue to look at what makes professional development valuable, effective, and efficient.

Resources

Carlson, A. M. (n.d.). What is Differentiated Instruction? Retrieved January 12, 2017, from http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-differentiated-instruction-examples-definition-activities.html

Gulamhussein, A. (n.d.). Teaching the Teachers. Retrieved January 12, 2017, from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Main-Menu/Staffingstudents/Teaching-the-Teachers-Effective-Professional-Development-in-an-Era-of-High-Stakes-Accountability/Teaching-the-Teachers-Full-Report.pdf

Guskey, T., & Suk Yoon, K. (2009, March). What Works in Professional Development? Retrieved January 12, 2017, from http://www.k12.wa.us/Compensation/pubdocs/Guskey2009whatworks.pdf

Project Evaluation Report. (n.d.). Transforming Professional Learning in Washington State, 1-87. Retrieved January 11, 2017, from http://www.k12.wa.us/CurriculumInstruct/WA-TPL/pubdocs/2016-WA-TPL-Evaluation-Report.pdf

Zepeda, S. J. (2012). Professional Development: What Works. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Zdonek, P. (2016, January 15). Why Don’t We Differentiate Professional Development? Retrieved January 12, 2017, from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/why-dont-we-differentiate-pd-pauline-zdonek

ISTE Teaching Standard 4 Reflection


References:

K-12 Digital Citizenship Curriculum | Common Sense Media. (n.d.). Retrieved May 27, 2016, from https://www.commonsensemedia.org/educators/digital-citizenship

SAMR Model – Technology Is Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved May 25, 2016, from https://sites.google.com/a/msad60.org/technology-is-learning/samr-model

Standards for Teachers. (n.d.). Retrieved May 25, 2016, from http://www.iste.org/standards/ISTE-standards/standards-for-teachers

ISTE: Critical Thinking and Reserach

In my masters program I have recently had the opportunity to form inquiry questions based on ISTE Standards three and four, relating to critical thinking and research.  These questions have helped guide my learning and have lead me to several instructional models and digital tools that I plan on incorporating in my classroom.  Below, I have included the questions, along with my Coggle mind maps, to share what I have learned.

ISTE Standard 3 Question: How can I support students in developing their own learning through research while ensuring that they are staying focused to the task at hand. In other words, is there a framework or “roadmap” to keep students on the path to discovering answers to a question without them getting distracted by the volume and scale of available resources.

ISTE Standard 4 Question: How can I modernize my current English 9 curriculum to incorporate digital tools that foster critical thinking skills necessary in the 21st century? What tools are available and how can I smoothly integrate them into my current instruction?